Wild plants may be resistant to herbicides.
https://www.shopping-charm.jp/product/2c2c2c2c-2c2c-2c2c-2c2c-313038373831 ラウンドアップ Credit goes to Xiao Yang
It has been established that a technique for genetic modification that is used extensively to create crops that are herbicide-resistant gives advantages to a weedy variety of rice. The findings suggest that this modification could have positive effects on wild rice varieties, as well as crop varieties.
ラウンドアップ A range of crop varieties have been genetically modified to make them immune to Roundup herbicide glyphosate. Farmers can eradicate most herbicides from their fields using this glyphosate resistance , without damaging their crops.
Glyphosate inhibits an enzyme known as EPSP synthase, which is responsible for the creation of specific amino acids and various other molecules. It can also inhibit the growth of plants. The genetic modification technique that is employed by Monsanto’s Roundup Ready crops, which are based in St Louis (Missouri), generally involves inserting genes into a crop’s DNA to increase EPSP synthase production. The genes typically come from bacteria that have been infected by plants.
The plant can endure the negative effects of glyphosate due to its additional EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs have also tried to use genes from plants rather than bacteria to boost the production of EPSP synthase, in part to exploit a loophole within US law that permits regulatory approval of organisms carrying transgenes that are not derived from bacterial pests.
Few studies have tested whether transgenes , such as those that confer resistance to glyphosate could — after they become wild or weedy relatives via cross-pollination, make plants more competitive in terms of survival and reproduction. “The conventional belief is that any transgene can cause disadvantages in the wild in absence of any selection pressure due to the fact that any additional machinery will reduce the fitness,” says Norman Ellstrand, a plant geneticist at the University of California in Riverside.
Lu Baorong (an ecologist at Fudan University, Shanghai) has now questioned that opinion. It shows that glyphosate resistance can give an impressive fitness boost to a weedy rice crop known as Oryza sativa even when it is not in use.
Their study was published in 1. Lu and his collaborators altered the genetics of cultivated rice to enhance its EPSP synthase activity and crossed it with a weedy counterpart.
The team allowed the offspring of cross-breeding to mix with one another, resulting in second-generation hybrids that are genetically identical to one another, except for the number of copies the gene encodes EPSP synase. The team discovered that the ones that had greater copies of the gene encoding EPSP synthase expressed more enzyme and produced more tryptophan, in line with what was expected.
Researchers also found that plants with transgenic genes were more photosynthesis-intensive and produced more flowers and produced 48 to 125 percent fewer seeds per plant than the nontransgenic hybrids. ラウンドアップ amazon This was despite the fact that glyphosate wasn’t present.
ラウンドアップ Making weedy rice more competitive can cause more problems for farmers all over the world whose plots are invaded by pests, Lu says.
Brian Ford-Lloyd (a UK plant geneticist) states that if the EPSP synthase genes are introduced into wild rice, then their genetic diversity which is so important to conserve could be at risk. The transgene could outcompete regular species. “This is among the most clear examples of highly plausible harmful impacts (of GM crops] upon the environment.”
This study challenges public notion that genetically modified plants carrying extra copies of their genes are more secure than those containing genes from microorganisms. Lu says that Lu’s study doesn’t support this view.
ラウンドアップ Researchers believe this discovery requires review of the regulations for the future on genetically modified crops. “Some individuals are saying that biosafety regulation can be relaxed because we have an extremely high level of satisfaction in the last two years of genetic engineering” Ellstrand says. ラウンドアップ 効果 “But the study demonstrates that novel products still need careful examination.”