Auto Draft

Wild plants might be capable of resisting herbicides.

Credit Xiao Yang
One of the most common methods used to make crops more resistant to herbicides was found to have advantages over weedy forms of rice. This suggests that this genetic modifications could also have the potential to affect wild animals.

Many varieties of crops have been genetically altered to be resistive to glyphosate. Roundup was the first herbicide to be marketed. Farmers can eliminate the majority of herbicides from their fields using this glyphosate resistance without causing damage to their crops.

Glyphosate acts as an inhibitor of the growth of plants. It inhibits an enzyme called EPSP synthase. This enzyme plays a role in the production certain amino acids as well as other molecules. These compounds can account for up to 35% of a plant’s mass. The genetic modification method employed in Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) is the process of inserting genes into a crop to increase EPSP synthase’s output. ラウンドアップ The genes are typically derived from bacteria that are infected with plants.

This extra EPSP synthase allows plants to resist the effects of glyphosate. Biotechnology labs have also tried to create EPSP-synthase that is more plant-based than bacteria by utilizing genes from plants. This was partly made to make use of an inconsistency found in US law, which permits the approval of regulatory authorities for organisms which aren’t the result of bacteria or parasites.

Few studies have tested the possibility that transgenes like those that confer glyphosate resistance can — once they become wild or weedy relatives by cross-pollination, make plants more competitive for survival and reproduction. Norman Ellstrand of University of California Riverside says, “The conventional expectation is that any type of transgene found in the wild could confer disadvantage if there’s no selection pressure because the additional machinery may reduce the health.”

Lu Baorong (an ecologist at Fudan University, Shanghai) has since challenged this view. It has proven that resistance to glyphosate provides a significant fitness boost to the weedy rice crop, called Oryza Sativa even when not being used.

The study was published in 1. Lu and his colleagues have genetically modified rice to increase its EPSP synthase expression , and then crossed it with a weedy relative.

The group then let offspring cross-bred to breed with one-another, creating second-generation hybrids that are genetically similar to their parents with the exception the number of duplicates of the gene that codes for EPSP synthase. ラウンドアップ As expected, the hybrids with more copies were more likely to produce more tryptophan and had higher enzyme levels than their unmodified counterparts.

Researchers also found that transgenic hybrids produced between 48 to 125 percent more seeds per plant, had more photosynthesis, and had more shoots than the non-transgenic varieties.

Lu believes making weedy, invading rice more competitive might make it more difficult for farmers to recoup the damage caused by this bug.

Brian Ford-Lloyd (a UK plant geneticist) says that if the EPSP-synthase genes are introduced into wild rice species, then their genetic diversity which is so important to conserve could be threatened. The transgene could surpass the normal species. “This is a clear illustration of the very real negative impacts of GM plants] on our environment.”

The study also challenges the belief that crops modified genetically carrying extra copies of their genes are more secure than the ones that have the genes of microorganisms. ラウンドアップ 撒き方 Lu declares, “Our study shows this is not always the case.”

The finding calls for a review of future regulations for the genetically altered crops, scientists say. “Some individuals are saying that biosafety regulation can be relaxed since we’ve achieved a high level of comfort in the last two years of genetic engineering” Ellstrand says. “But the study proved that the new technologies still need to be evaluated with care.”

ウンドアップ 価格 コメリ