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An electron-scanning microscope can create images by the use of electrons. This microscope provides a 1,000-fold improvement in resolution over the light microscope. ציוד למעבדות כימיה uses a vacuum device as well as an electron optical column for generating images. To fully understand the functioning of an electron scanner, learn about its components. The following are some things to keep in mind prior to purchasing your first microscope:

Electronic gun

A gun that is electronic, and is an element in the scanning electron microscope, creates the beam. The parameters for the beam are an effect of the gun’s electron. This gun is especially important for the fabrication of small electron-optical columns. Because of their brightness as well as their small size sources, field emission cathodes are ideal for the production of these columns. This type of device comes with a lower threshold voltage and high emission currentthat can reach the 90-uA mark.

A beam of electrons is generated via the electronic gun. Electron guns emit electrons from an indirect heated cathode. Electrons emit from electrodes after power is applied across them. The intensity of beam is dependent on the flow of current through the electrodes. It does not release electrons in broad beams, in contrast to the cathode. The electron gun emits one that is sharp and evenly focused.

Magnifying lenses

One of the main motivations behind using magnetic lenses used in SEM is to increase contrast. Magnetic lenses can’t make parallel electrons converge into a point. They are characterized by a variety of optical aberrations. includes those of chromatic, spherical, and Diffraction errors. They are minimized through adjusting how the lens operates in SEM. The following are advantages and disadvantages of SEM optical lenses.

Backscattered electrons is a popular method used in SEM. are more energetic of backscattered electrons. They could be utilized for the imaging of non-conductive materials. The object must be dehydrated before using the SEM However. SEM is an effective tool for research into materials and is able to detect chemical composition, morphology, topography, as well as microstructure. SEM can also analyze semiconductors as well as microchips.

Condenser lenses

The condenser lenses in the scanning electron microscope (STEM) allow for the control of the intensity of the beam focused on the sample. There are two types of condenser lens: a one lens that concentrates the beam onto the sample or a double one that produces a reduced picture of the source. Double condenser lenses are less expensive and is more versatile. It is possible to alter the image’s size.

The combination of the source element and condenser lenses elements makes up the electron column. ftir spectrometer form an angled convex lens, which concentrates electrons onto the object. Convex lenses let electrons speed through them, creating an intricate spiral. The angle as well as the current in the lenses of condensers affect how electrons flow through the object.

Secondary electron detector

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has two types of detectors, the primary and secondary. An electron detector that is primary measures the energy that is released from an object and a secondary electron detector measures the energy dispersion in the image. With a scanning electron microscope, the latter is commonly used for substances with a high contrast, which is impossible to get with a conventional detector. There are two kinds that are secondary electron detectors EDX and FEI spectrum.

The SE1 image shows a shale sample. The SE1 signal is derived from the surface of the sample and is usually used to show detail of the surface at high resolution however, it is at the cost of compositional information. The SE2 image shows the effects of higher landing energies and a more intimate interaction with the specimen. The SE2 image contrasts with the SE2 image, which, in turn, shows compositional information as well as has a higher resolution. Both types of SEMs are distinct and both have their strengths and weaknesses.


Computer programs can make use of the many advantages of scanning electron microscopes. The microscope requires stable power supplies, a cooling system, and a quiet setting. An electron beam is used for tracing the samples by using SEMs. The procedure begins with an electron guns. The solenoids are the electronic lenses that concentrate the electron beam onto the surface of the object. The speed of electrons is also increased by these lenses as it crosses the surface of the specimen.

The SEM functions by pushing an electron beam through an extremely high voltage system. The beam is then narrowed by scanning coils, which are placed along the surfaces of the specimen. After the electron beam interacts with the sample, any signals result from this interaction in the form of secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, or X-rays with a particular characteristic. These signals are then compiled to form images.