In https://auctions.yahoo.co.jp/search/search?rkf=2&p=%E3%83%A9%E3%82%A6%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89%E3%82%A2%E3%83%83%E3%83%97&aucmaxprice=999999999&thumb=1&s1=score2&o1=a&isdd=1&ei=utf-8&fixed=3&nockie=1&isnext=1&ex_cat=2084006160,2084008038,2084034075&rewrite_ok_wand_re_search=1 , herbicide resistance might confer an advantage to plants.
ラウンドアップ 口コミ can pick up transgenes from genetically modified rice through cross-pollination. Credit: Xiao Yang
A common technique for the genetic modification of plants that make them herbicide-resistant has been found to give advantages to weedy varieties rice, even when herbicide isn’t present. These findings suggest that such modifications can have a broad spectrum of effects that extend beyond farms and into the wild.
Many varieties of crops have been genetically engineered to resist the glyphosate. This herbicide, first known as Roundup and then introduced into the market in 1996 under the trade name Roundup. This glyphosate-resistant crop allows farmers to eliminate the majority of plants without damaging their crops.
Glyphosate can inhibit plant growth by blocking EPSP synase, an enzyme involved in the creation of amino acids, as well as other chemical compounds that make up about 35% of plant mass. The genetic-modification technique is used, for example, in Roundup Ready plants made by Monsanto Biotechnology Inc., a biotech firm that is headquartered in St Louis, Missouri. It involves inserting genes into the genome of the crop to boost EPSP synthase-synthase production. The genes are usually derived from bacteria that infect the plants.
The additional EPSP synthase helps the plant be resistant to the effects of glyphosate. Biotechnology labs tried to use genes from plants to boost EPSP synthase activity. This was partially to exploit a loophole within US law that permits the regulatory approval for transgenes in organisms that are not derived from pests caused by bacteria.
There aren’t many studies that have examined the possibility that transgenes like ones that confer resistance to glyphosate could — after they become wild or weedy relatives via cross-pollination, make plants more competitive in terms of survival and reproduction. ラウンドアップ of University of California Riverside declares, “The conventional expectation is that any transgene that is found in nature will confer disadvantage if there’s no pressure to select because the added machinery can decrease the fitness.”
Lu Baorong (an ecologist at Fudan University, Shanghai) has now challenged that view. It has proven that glyphosate resistance can give a significant fitness boost to a weedy rice crop called Oryza sativa even when it is not being used.
Their study was published in 1. Lu and his coworkers have genetically modified rice to increase its EPSP synthase expression , and then crossed it with a weedy counterpart.
https://www.komeri.com/disp/CKmSfGoodsPageMain_001.jsp?GOODS_NO=1713321 allowed the offspring from cross-breeding to breed with one another, resulting in second-generation hybrids that are genetically identical with one another, except for the amount of copies the gene that encodes EPSP synase. As ラウンドアップ would expect, hybrids that had more copies of the gene had a higher chance to make more tryptophan as well as have greater levels of enzymes over their counterparts that were not modified.
Researchers also discovered that plants with transgenic genes had higher rates for photosynthesis as well as produced more flowers and produced 48-125% fewer seeds per plant than nontransgenic hybrids. This was despite the fact that glyphosate was not present.
Lu believes that making rice that is weedy less competitive could make it more difficult for farmers whose plots are infested by pests.
Brian Ford-Lloyd, a UK plant geneticist and says, “If the EPSP synthase gene gets in the wild rice varieties their genetic diversity could be threatened which is really significant because the genotype with transgene has a higher level of competition than the standard species.” “This is a prime instance of the most plausible and damaging effects of GM crops on the environment.”
The study also challenges the public perception that genetically modified crops with extra copies of their genes are safer than those containing the genes of microorganisms. “Our study shows that this is not always the case,” says Lu.
Certain researchers believe that this finding calls for a review of future regulation of crops that have been genetically modified. Ellstrand believes that biosafety regulations may be relaxed because we are able to enjoy a high level security from two decades of genetic engineering. The study showed that new products must be evaluated carefully.