The wild plants may have the advantage of resistance to herbicides.
Weedy rice may take on transgenes from genetically modified crop rice by cross-pollinating. Credit: Xiao Yang
A common method of genetic modification employed to make crops resistant to herbicides was shown to have advantages over weedy forms of rice. This suggests that the benefits of this modification could extend beyond the confines of farms out into the wild.
There are many kinds of crops are genetically modified to resist glyphosate. Roundup was the first herbicide that was marketed. https://www.yodobashi.com/product/100000001002109951/ This makes it possible for farmers to eradicate weeds from their fields without causing harm to their crops.
Glyphosate slows the growth of plants by blocking an enzyme referred to as EPSP synthase, which is involved in the creation of specific amino acids as well as other molecules that account for approximately 35% of a plant’s mass. The genetic modification method employed for Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) involves inserting genetic material into a crop to increase EPSP synthase’s output. The genes are often derived from bacteria that has affected the plants.
The plant can resist the adverse effects of glyphosate because it has an extra EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs have also tried to utilize plants’ genes instead of bacteria to increase EPSP-synthase levels and, in turn, to take advantage of an inconsistency in US law that permits regulatory approval of organisms carrying transgenes not made from bacterial pests.
ラウンドアップ https://www.komeri.com/search/ラウンドアップ/?dispNo=&codeSearch=0&searchFirst=1 There aren’t many studies that have examined the possibility that transgenes that confer glyphosate tolerance can — once they become weedy or wild relatives via cross-pollinating -can boost the plant’s survival and reproduce. Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside, said that the traditional expectation was that any transgene would be detrimental to nature if there was no selection pressure. ラウンドアップ This is because any extra machinery would lower the performance of the.
But now a study led by Lu Baorong, an ecologist from Fudan University in Shanghai, challenges that view and shows that a weedy form of the common rice crop, Oryza sativa has a significant fitness boost from the resistance to glyphosate even when glyphosate isn’t applied.
Lu and his coworkers genetically modified the rice species to express its EPSP synthase, and then crossed-bred it with the marijuana-producing parent.
The group then allowed cross-bred offspring to breed with each other, resulting in second-generation hybrids that were genetically identical to one another with the exception of the amount of copies of the gene that encodes EPSP synthase. Likely, the ones with more copies expressed greater amounts of the enzyme and produced more amino acids tryptophan than the unmodified ones.
The researchers also found that transgenic hybrids have higher rates of photosynthesis. They also they grew larger flowers and shoots and produced 48 to 125 percent more seeds per plant than non-transgenic hybrids — in the absence of the chemical glyphosate.
Making the weedy rice more competitive may cause more problems for farmers across the globe who’s plots are infested by the pest, Lu says.
Brian Ford-Lloyd, an UK plant geneticist and states, “If the EPSP synthase gene becomes present in wild rice varieties, their genetic diversity would be endangered, which is important because the genotype with transgene has a higher level of competition than the standard species.” “This is one the most evident instances of extremely plausible negative impacts (of GM crops] on the natural environment.”
The public belief that genetically-modified crops that contain additional copies of their genes are safer is challenged by this study. https://www.kohnan-eshop.com/shop/g/g4957919634894/ Lu says that the study “shows that this is not always true”.
ラウンドアップ The finding calls for a review of future regulations for genetically modified crops, some researchers say. Ellstrand states that “some people believe that biosafety regulation could be relaxed since we have a an incredibly comfortable relationship with genetic engineering for two decades.” ラウンドアップ This study isn’t proof that new products are safe.