What exactly is Roundup Ready? Roundup Ready is a trademark name for a patent-pending line of genetically modified crop seeds that are immune to the herbicide that is based on glyphosate called Roundup. ラウンドアップ https://www.rakuten.ne.jp/gold/kaientai/category/sunfulon/ These crops are called Roundup Ready.
So, who invented Roundup?
Glyphosate is the active agent in Roundup was first identified as an herbicide in the year 1970 by Monsanto chemical scientist, John Franz. ラウンドアップ In 1970, the vast majority of herbicides used in the agricultural field were pre-emergent. https://www.jacom.or.jp/nouyaku/news/2019/10/191024-39457.php This means that they were applied before the plants and weeds had appeared. Glyphosate’s capacity to control huge quantities of grass weeds and broadleafs was totally different. Its exceptional environmental properties (soil inactivation, rapid degradation, etc.).) and toxicological qualities (extremely minimal levels of toxicity for mammals and other beneficial organisms) made it a revolutionary product.
When was Roundup the first time it was created?
Roundup(r) which is a broad-spectrum herbicide, was first released on the market in 1974. It quickly became become the top-selling agricultural chemical. Roundup(r) was initially was utilized in ditches along railroads and in fields between growth seasons. This helped farmers manage weeds such as broadleaf and grass that came up out of the soil decreasing the need for the tillage process, while also preserving soil structure and reducing erosion.
The Roundup Ready GMOs followed.
Monsanto scientists recognized the potential benefits that Roundup(r) Recombinant DNA product might be for farmers following the discoveries made in the 1970s. This problem was solved by a small group of scientistsincluding Dr. Ernie Jaworski and Steve Rogers. In the early 1980s , this team had developed the first system to insert genes into plants. https://www.zennoh.or.jp/eigi/research/pdf/gr334_06.pdf Our attention shifted to the creation of virus-resistant crops, which are resistant to insect pests and are Roundup-tolerant.
It was found that Roundup blocked the production of aromatic amino acids in plants. This is the reason for Roundup’s high level mammalian safety. Additionally, glyphosate is quickly degraded in soils by microorganisms. Our research had identified both plant- and microbial genetics that conferred more herbicide resistance. Roundup Ready plants were first evaluated on the field by USDA in 1987. This Roundup-resistant crop was genetically modified tomatoes which were resistant to Roundup. After a few years the bacterial gene that would later become the Roundup Ready trait was discovered, isolated and introduced into plants.
Let’s take a look at soybeans for an example by answering the question, what is Roundup Ready soybeans? And how are Roundup Ready soybeans constructed? Roundup Ready Soybeans are soybeans genetically engineered which have had their DNA modified so that they are able to resist the herbicide glyphosate that is the active component in the herbicide Roundup. This soybean is intolerant to Roundup as every seed is equipped with the gene that is afflicted with Roundup before it’s planted. This means that farmers can spray their fields with herbicide without killing their crops.
As you can observe, the introduction of Roundup Ready crops in 1996 revolutionized agriculture and farming science! Farmers soon realized the advantages of Roundup resistance, and the adoption rate was very swift (today more than 90% of the U.S. soybean, corn, cotton and canola fields use biotech traits for resistance to herbicides). Roundup Ready crops have not only simplified and improved weed management methods, but also cut down on the cost of tillage and equipment. https://www.yodobashi.com/product/100000001002109951/ This allowed for more efficient harvests and a lower number of weeds. ラウンドアップ Conservation tillage has provided significant environmental benefits. Farmers have decreased their energy consumption and GHG emissions by using less plowing. This protects the soil’s structure and slows erosion. This is equivalent to taking 28.4 billion kilograms of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in 2013, or 12.4 million vehicles off the roads for a year (Source: , PG Economics).